Stories from the First Cathedral - Faribault, MN
The Rev Canon James C Zotalis
February 22, 2021
February 16, 2021
February 9, 2021
Grace McKinstry Again!
I start out correcting myself about Grace McKinstry's painting in the secretary's office in the Guild House of the First Cathedral. I have two corrections; 1) Grace's house was only a city block away from the Cathedral. 2) The small landscape I described was painted from Grace's home in view of Evangeline Whipple's garden next to the Whipple home. Evangeline enjoyed and worked very hard on her garden which featured many roses and beautiful foliage.
The third McKinstry painting from last week hangs in the Great Hall of the Cathedral Guild House. This is a portrait of Lieutenant Asa T Abbot painted in oil on canvas and measuring 24 inches by 36 inches.
"Dr Dobbin (Headmaster of Shattuck St Mary's) was able in the 1880's to hire Lieutenant Abbott, a Civil War Veteran; then living in St Paul. Though a native of Maine, Abbott had volunteered for the First Minnesota Infantry in April 1861. After the war, he attended the US Artillery School at Fort Meade, and so one of his first projects at Shattuck was to develop an artillery platoon and special drill. This was incorporated into the dress parade routine, adding considerable pageantry and noise." (For a Life of Learning and Service - How Shattuck-St Mary's Came to Be by Robert Neslund)
The painting of Lieutenant Abbot is a portrait of him in his dress uniform. I am assuming that he posed for the portrait. I am also assuming that Shattuck St Mary's commissioned Grace McKinstry to paint the portrait to remember Lieutenant Asa Abbott. The painting was found at St Mary's Hall. There was a room in the basement of St Mary's Hall that had been unoccupied for decades. There were many treasurers of art and other historical archives from the First Cathedral and Shattuck St Mary's. I was allowed to restore, clean and display these items, when I was Dean of the Cathedral probably about the year 2005 - 2006. I remember the Abbott painting was covered in a dark soot and had a tear in the middle of the canvas. Lieutenant Asa T Abbott's portrait by Grace McKinstry was restored and has a prominent place on display in the Great Hall of the Guild House.
Grace Emmajean McKinstry
Grace Emmajean McKinstry was one of the most celebrated women artists in the 19th and 20th centuries in America. Grace was an accomplished artist who painted portraits and landscapes. She used oil on canvas in her paintings. Most of her works reside in the Rice County Historical Society in Faribault. Grace lived in a house in Faribault near the Hutchinson Bed and Breakfast west of downtown. She was trained in Chicago and New York. She has works in California and spent some time in a permanent studio in Southern California. Her paintings can be found in Paris, the Smithsonian in Washington DC, Minnesota History Center and Minnesota State Capitol. Grace was born in Fredonia, NY and died in Minneapolis. She is buried in Oak Ridge Cemetery in Faribault, MN. Most of Grace McKinstry's years were spent in Faribault even though she painted all over the United States and Europe. Grace never married.
The First Cathedral owns three paintings by Grace McKinstry. The most famous one is a portrait of the Rev Dr James Lloyd Breck found in the Cathedral Cloister. Looking at the portrait a person can appreciate her soft-like and Rembrandt-like brush strokes in the composition. The second painting by Grace is in the secretary's office of the First Cathedral, which is in the Guild House. This is a small landscape from the countryside in Rice County. It is a beautiful green impressionist scene with trees in the spring displaying new and fresh leaves. The third McKinstry painting is a portrait hanging in the Great Hall of the Guild House. This is a large portrait of a soldier and teacher from Shattuck-St Mary's school. In my next story, I will tell you his name, where the painting was discovered after being hidden for decades and how it was repaired.
January 18, 2021
William Milligan (veteren of the Civil War)
William Milligan came to the First Cathedral in 1865 when the war ended. His first task was to prepare the wood for all the pews in the nave and choir of the new Cathedral. He was paid $1.25 per 10 hour day. In 1869 when the building was finished, William stayed on as the Cathedral Verger or caretaker of the bishop's house. William liked to be called 'Major" and served as the "Bishop's Man". I don't know if he was the bishop's body guard!
""In 1930 Milligan was featured in the St Paul Pioneer Press: "Yes I guess I'm almost a member of the Bishop's family. ...Have been for years. Why I remember going into the Bishop's study wearin' overalls, and he would introduce me to whoever was a'visiting him. Great men came to see Bishop Whipple." ....Speaking of Whipple's study, he remarked, "I've seen nearly every kind of man in this room. ... You're whistlin', I have. Indians, and Negroes, too. And the Bishop treated them all alike."" (The First Cathedral by Robert Neslund and The Venerable Ben Scott)
Cornelia Whipple died in 1890. Bishop Whipple died in 1901. Evangeline lived eight quiet years in the house until she left to take care of her ill brother in France. She put "Major" Milligan in charge, with strict orders that the Bishop's rooms and library be kept exactly as he and she had left them. The rooms were never opened and Evangeline would never return. "Major" Milligan guarded everything and lived in the basement until the 1930's. He died at age 93 and served as the Cathedral Verger for 52 years and was employed by the Whipple household for 69 years. The Whipple house was torn down in 1934. There was a large auction of all the contents and Bishop Whipple's Indian Art collection was split between Shattuck-St Mary's School and the Minnesota History Museum. The auction and Indian collection will be future material for the Stories of the First Cathedral.
One of the treasures in the archives of the First Cathedral is "Major" William Milligan's scrapbook. It contains wonderful newspaper articles, souvenirs and comments by the old Verger. It is a mystery how it survived!
January 11, 2021
Stained Glass Windows Continued
This story will finish my description of the stained glass windows in the First Cathedral buildings (1862 Cathedral, 1934 Cathedral addition, 1893 Guild House, 1905 Guild House addition and the 2005 Cathedral Cloister). Writing about the stained glass windows without color images is very difficult! When the covid days have passed I would be happy to give a tour as the First Cathedral Archivist to any group so they can observe the beautiful windows.
In the Guild House there are several windows throughout the building. In the Great Hall (in the 1893 Guild House) are the most beautiful windows and all have memorials attached to them. The most attractive window is the Resurrection window on the stage of the Great Hall. It was given in memory of the Rev Edward Clark Bill. From 1893 to 1905, the Resurrection window was on an outside wall benefiting from the natural light. When the addition was completed the window needed to be illuminated by artificial light. This light is powered by bulbs, which need changing about every 3 years. The window needs to be raised up with a pulley that is in the attic of the Guild House to be changed. The access now can only be obtained through a ceiling door in the kitchen. It is an adventure to change the bulbs!
Two other windows include a John the Baptist image window in memory of James Lloyd Breck, and reflects his title of being "an apostle of the wilderness." Across the Great Hall from this window is a grouping of windows with the image of Samuel, the Old Testament prophet, and a young boy. These windows are in memory of Herbert McArthur Smith who accidently killed himself with a gun that was not locked up. He was three years old! There are many other windows throughout the Guild house, which are decorative in nature. The ones in the Dean's office are very colorful with rich warm pigment that is really beautiful especially in the mornings.
The windows in the 2005 Cloister were obtained from Blooming Prairie, Minnesota while I was Dean of the Cathedral. The Episcopal church in Blooming Prairie was deconsecrated in the 1920's and the building was taken over by the Methodists. I received a call from a friend of mine, who was an antique dealer about these windows. The Methodists who occupied this former Episcopal church were leaving the building and were selling the windows and other Episcopal artifacts. I left the Cathedral as fast as I could with my 2005 Ford Ranger truck to get to Blooming Prairie. When I arrived the windows were already stacked outside. There were only 3 left. I don't know how many were originally in the building. The windows were beautiful (mostly decorative images) with memorials on the bottom. I was so lucky to find the Bishop Whipple memorial on one of them. I pulled up and visited with the Methodist demolition crew and told them who I was. They said I could have them as a gift. I went around town and found cardboard and whatever I could find to pile the three windows in the back of my Ranger. They stuck out about 3 feet from the back as the windows were about 10 feet long. I slowly made it back to Faribault without any damage.
About a month later, I received a call from a family from Blooming Prairie telling me they had another window they purchased from an antique dealer. I drove over the next day and visited with the family and confirmed it was part of the same Episcopal church as the others. They said I could have the window if I would place a plaque below the window as a memorial for their son who had died in his 20s.
These 4 windows were mounted in the Cloister in the window framing of the Cloister openings, which all are clear. There were 3 gentlemen from the First Cathedral who restored them and hung them. They look wonderful in the Cloister and the First Cathedral didn't have to raise funds to provide stained glass windows in the Cathedral Cloister.
January 4, 2021
The St Elizabeth Chapel
In 1934, the St Elizabeth's Chapel and Crypt were added on to the Cathedral building. To stay in the spirit of Advent and Christmas we will discuss art in the St Elizabeth Chapel. "The chapel incorporates the furnishing and some of the structural details of Bishop Whipple's private oratory in the old See House (The arched ceiling either preserves the original beams or duplicates them). The only change in plan is that the Bishop had the pews arranged 'choir wise"." (The First Cathedral by Venerable Ben Scott and Mr Robert Neslund)
In the chapel, there is only one stained glass window. The window is of St Elizabeth and was created by an artist for Bishop Whipple in memory of his parents. The Bishop's mother was named Elizabeth. The window is an image of St Elizbeth of Hungary (1207-1231) not the Advent Elizabeth, wife of Zachariah and mother of St John the Baptist. Opposite the stained glass window of St Elizabeth is the altar against the wall which features a 31 inch high triptych of a Fra Angelico painting "A Virgin and Child" (original is at the Uffizi museum in Florence Italy). Another window, given in memory of Bishop Whipple's parents (John and Elizabeth Whipple), is in the Cathedral nave titled "Charity distributing gifts" and is depicted by a description "In as much as ye did unto the least of these, ye did unto me" (St Matthew 25).
These works of art and windows were Advent and Christmas related in the Cathedral building and addition of 1934. The Cathedral tradition during the Christmas season was extravagant throughout the decades and which can be seen in old photographs in the Cathedral archives.
My first Christmas decorating memory at the Cathedral was in 1987 when I was chaplain at Shattuck St Mary's.. my family and I were invited one Saturday in December to help decorate the name of the Cathedral for Christmas. I remember that 50+ people showed up and went to the undercroft of the Cathedral to haul up large boxes of decorations to be placed in the nave and choir area. The highlight for me was to help bring in the live tree through the West doors. Volunteers carried the huge tree, which almost touched the ceiling, and placed it in one of the Cathedral ambulatories near the door to the addition and Cathedral offices. People would climb on ladders to decorate the enormous tree. It was a magnificent site during the Christmas Eve service when the lights were turned off and everyone would hold their candle and sing Silent Night. May all of you be blessed with Christmas memories, but know we have many future memories to look forward to.
December 15th, 2020
The Good Samaritan Window
"Taken together, the stained glass windows suggest the diversity of those who helped to build the Cathedral. Two windows represent wealthy contributors: William Pierrepoint (St John) and Robert Minturn (The Good Samaritan). Two represent helpers with humble means: Miss Emelione C Bogart of Albany, NY, an invalid (The Guardian Angel) and Thomas Chappell, a blacksmith from Winona, MN (St Peter)." (The First Cathedral by the Venerable Ben Scott and Robert Neslund)
When I became Dean of the Cathedral in 2001, the windows were on my list for preservation. To begin with, the windows were covered on the outside with plexiglass that had yellowed and let in little light and looked terrible on the outside. All of the plexiglass was removed from all the windows in the Cathedral building and the Guild House and replaced with heavy glass that has ventilation holes that keep the windows safe and sound. Then I made a list of windows, which needed repair. There were several that were bowed from almost 150 years of existence. To start the process I asked a photographer to photograph each window. These were high quality images that showed all of the details of each window and captured the colors, but also the repairs needed that were caused by age.
While working on stained glass window repair, the west side of the Cathedral nave was being reroofed. In the middle of the roofing project there was a frightening accident. One of the roofers slipped on a heavy ladder causing the ladder to smash through one of the windows on the west side of the Cathedral nave. This catastrophe happened while I was working in my office one morning. Hearing the shouting and cries of agony I rushed to the Cathedral from my office. The Good Samaritan window given by Robert Minturn was in a pile of stained glass pieces spread all over the pews with a heavy ladder on top of the remains of this beautiful window!
After several days of mourning, I pulled out the photo of this window. I found a miracle worker stained glass artist in St Paul, who came to the Cathedral and claimed he could bring the window back to life. The expense was paid by the roofer's insurance. The Good Samaritan window was resurrected and today it looks like the window was never damaged. This stained glass window repairman and artist became a fixture of stained glass window restoration at the Cathedral for many years!
Deceber 8, 2020
Stained Glass Windows
My last letter mentioned that I would give stories about the stained glass windows in the buildings of the First Cathedral. The two windows in the nave of the Cathedral that were the most popular on tours were connected to Bishop Whipple and the Native people of the Diocese of Minnesota. Both of these windows rest on the south side of the Cathedral nave. One window represents Bishop Whipple's Diocesan Seal. The inscription has a Latin sentence.."Pax per sanguinem cuces" (peace by the blood of the cross). In the window is a design of a pipe and broken tomahawk, a gift of the Christian Indians of the Diocese. The window next to this window to the west shows a lamb sustaining a banner of the cross with the inscription "in memoriam of Indian Lambs; a gift of the Indian children who earned money for the window by picking and selling berries.
"The two windows given by Indians probably elicit more interest from visitors than any other windows in the Cathedral. The first one, immediately west of the south door in the Agnus Dei (Lamb of God) window. Christ represented here as a lamb, is shown with a sealed book - the "Lamb's Book of Life", containing the names of all who will be saved. Soon after the Dakota conflict, Indian children living in Faribault under the Bishop's protection began to gather and sell berries to make this window possible. The window commemorates "other Indian lambs who are asleep." The second Indian window displays the seal of the Diocese. Apparently the Bishop himself designed this emblem." (The First Cathedral" by the Venerable Benjamin Scott and Mr Robert Neslund)
These two windows express the compassion Bishop Whipple felt towards the Indian people after the Dakota Conflict and execution of the 38 Dakota warriors in Mankato in December 1862. Most Minnesota men of power and high offices wanted Indian people driven from Minnesota lands. Bishop Whipple created a haven in Faribault for Dakota people, who wanted to live in peace, despite persecution they were rendered no matter where they lived in Minnesota.
December 1, 2020
The Stain Glass Windows
During Advent and Christmas, I will write about the stained glass windows in all of the buildings of the First Cathedral. Each window has a special story. It would take many pages to tell these. When I give tours of the First Cathedral I pick and choose a few windows to tell the individual stories. If I told all the remarkable tales attributed to the beautiful pieces of stained glass created in each window it would take all day. Let's start with the nave and choir area of the 1862 cathedral which houses twenty-one windows.
"The windows, all designed by the George Morgan studio of New York City, were not particularly expensive - the lancets in the nave each cost about $100. Though the Republican thought that they were "in the best style of modern art", the windows are not especially complex in design or technique. Most windows get by with relatively few pieces. Nor do the windows feature complex symbolism: most of their imagery is simple, not subtle. The Cathedral windows are remarkable in the intensity of their colors - notably blues, reds and bright greens. In early morning and late afternoon the windows can utterly glow." (The First Cathedral by the Venerable Ben Scott and Mr Robert Neslund)
My favorite window is above the altar in the choir area. It is titled Saviour Bearing a Lamb, the gift of the Rev Ezekiel Gear, former chaplain of Fort Snelling. The colors are bright and beautiful. The window shows Jesus the Good Shepherd holding a lamb close to his face with a look of compassion and love.
November 17, 2020
The Cathedral is Built and Consecrated
I want to dwell on the First Cathedral's structure for future stories through the Advent season. The construction of the Cathedral started in 1862 and it was consecrated in 1869. Because of the custom of the church, the building could not be consecrated until everything had been paid for. ( Ironically the Cathedral Cloister built in 2005 to 2006 was paid for at its completion.) The cost of the Cathedral's building was under $100,000 with gifts coming from many people around the country. The first service was held on May 16, 1869 and Bishop Whipple baptized 15 people. The building of the First Cathedral was a great undertaking of faith by many led by our first bishop Henry Whipple.
"At 11 o'clock on June 24, 1869, St John the Baptist's Day, the Cathedral was consecrated. The venerable, old Jackson Kemper had come by train from the Diocese of Wisconsin with Bishop Armitage, the coadjutor. Bishop Kemper had opened Minnesota to the mission of the Episcopal Church, presided over the election of its first bishop, and would now set apart the Bishop's church. The procession formed at Bishop Whipple's residence nearby. The students from Seabury Hall and Shattuck Grammar School led, followed by the clergy of the diocese. At the door of the Cathedral, Bishop Kemper entered first. As they continued down the center aisle, Psalm XXIV was recited alternately between the Bishop and others. The preacher, Bishop Whitehouse of Illinois, followed Kemper, who was followed by Whipple. The diocesan clergy were led by Minnesota's first priest, Ezekiel Gear. A total of 1000 persons were reported to have attended the consecration." (The First Cathedral, by the Venerable Ben Scott and Mr Robert Neslund)
My imagination runs wild thinking about so many people in the building, what the procession looked like and the content of the sermons given by famous church men of the 19th century.
November 10, 2020
Bishop Whipple Meets President Lincoln
"Abraham Lincoln sat in his office in the White House on the afternoon of September 10, 1862. His desk was piled high with reports from military officers, cabinet members, legislators and civil servants. A series of humiliating defeats had been followed by a reshuffling in the high command, and now General Robert E Lee's army was encamped north of the Potomac, on the banks of Antietam Creek, near Sharpsburg, Maryland, barely fifty miles from the capital. The next day's battle of Antietam would produce unprecedented numbers of casualties on both sides,but would result in Lee's withdrawal to Virginia.
Lincoln was awaiting a visit from the Episcopal bishop of Minnesota, Henry B Whipple. Whipple was a cousin of Lincoln's commander-in-chief, Major General Henry Wager Halleck, who had requested this meeting on his cousin's behalf. Bishop Whipple wanted to discuss the recent Dakota Indian war in Minnesota, which had come as an unpleasant distraction to a president preoccupied with a far larger conflict." (And the Wilderness Shall Blossom by Anne Beiser Allen, 2008)
It took days for Bishop Whipple to travel from the First Cathedral to Washington DC to act as an advocate for the Indian people after the Dakota conflict in August of 1862. After the war, there was a list of over 300 Indian warriors who were to be executed! Bishop Whipple pleaded for these warriors to be released because they were essentially prisoners of war. President Lincoln reviewed the records of these men and reduced the count to 38 prisoners to hang on Dec 26, 1862 on the gallows in Mankato, MN. This act of meeting with President Lincoln on Sept 10, 1862, caused many death threats on Bishop Whipple's life that year. The threats were overridden by the courage of Bishop Whipple to seek justice and mercy for his Dakota flock in the Diocese of Minnesota.
November 1, 2020
They Called Him "Straight Tongue"
"He was the Episcopal bishop who went to see Lincoln to try to stop a mass hanging of the Sioux Indians........ Whipple did go to see Lincoln about the Sioux (henceforth to be called by their own name, the Dakotas), but the visit took place in a much larger, more impressive context: years of Whipple's advocacy, including several trips and letters to Washington in which the bishop demanded a sweeping reform of how the U.S. government treated Native Americans. Whipple acted as a one-man movement, seeking respect and protection for American Indians to replace the monstrous fraud and injustice to which he saw them subjected." (Lincoln's Bishop by Gustav Niebuhr, 2014)
Gustav Niebuhr called me in 2012 and asked if he could interview me about a new book about Bishop Whipple. He visited others on his trip to Minnesota. I was honored to show him the First Cathedral and he was thrilled to see Bishop Whipple's personal items on display throughout the three buildings of the Cathedral.
My favorite Whipple object is a portrait of the Bishop created in charcoal by an artist who worked for the famous 19th century publication called Harper's Weekly. This portrait is more than life size and I believe the best image of Bishop Whipple circa 1870. The portrait shows a man who possesses deep compassionate eyes. It was this compassion that attracted Gustav Niebhr to write a book about a man, who died over a hundred years before the publication of Lincoln's Bishop. What motivated Mr. Niebuhr to write about Bishop Whipple? It was the Bishop's work as an advocate for the native Dakota who needed someone to stand with them in their darkest hour. That's why the Dakota called Bishop Whipple "Straight Tongue."
October 27, 2020
"When I began my work there (as Dean of the First Cathedral), he (Bishop Whipple) was away, and for several months I could see how, even in his absence, his spirit dominated everything in the town (Faribault MN). It was not only that people were proud of him; they looked up to him as to a father, and all seemed to have some personal association with him." (Certain American Faces by Charles Lewis Slattery, 1918)
Last week I commented on the physical appearance of Bishop Whipple. In this story, I wish to comment on the character of Bishop Whipple. Charles Slattery witnessed the importance of Bishop Whipple's presence in the city of Faribault, the home of the First Cathedral. Despite Bishop Whipple's denomination as an Episcopalian, everyone, no matter what faith community in Faribault, felt a special attachment to him. Bishop Whipple believed that the First Cathedral was more than an Episcopal Cathedral. The Cathedral in Faribault was in the center of town and radiated a sense of welcome to the entire city. The Guild House on the Cathedral city block was a place of social gatherings. The Cathedral church was a place to gather to honor God and for corporate worship for all people no matter what color or belief. The source of this acceptability came from the Christ-like character of love, exhibited by Henry and Cornelia Whipple as they lived among the population of 19th Century Faribault.
October 13th, 2020
Who was Bishop Charles Slattery and what was his role at the First Cathedral?
What Did Bishop Whipple Look Like? Here is what Charles Slattery had to say about him. "At last I saw this interesting man face to face. He had come to Boston to act as one of the presenters at Bishop Brook's consecration; and in calling upon an old rector in an hotel, I found myself being presented to Bishop Whipple. He was gaunt, tall, with long hair, with a patriarchal face. He passed from one to another, saying his word of affection to this old friend or that; and his voice could not be forgotten. In his youth, I have been told, this voice had a marvellous resonance and appeal; to the end, though diminished, it was such a voice as would awaken a man's thought of the open fields and the wide skies." (Certain American Faces by Charles Lewis Slattery 1918)
Charles Slattery was the Dean of the Cathedral from 1896 to 1907. He was present at Bishop Whipple's death in 1901. He was present and a significant counsel to Evngeline Whipple during the period following the Bishop's death and the transition of new leadership. Charles Slattery became the 8th bishop of Massachusetts in 1927. He served as a dedicated disciple out East after his experience of being Dean of the First Cathedral.
One of the treasures in the archives of the First Cathedral are letters he wrote to Evangeline about ideas to improve structures on the Cathedral building and other future plans. Charles would take his vacations every summer and ride the Great Northern passenger train to Glacier Park. On the train and in his respite he created wonderful letters with drawings and personal correspondence to Evnageline. Charles Slattery was a devoted priest, a talented artist and a man of mystery during his tenure as Dean of the First Cathedral.
October 6th, 2020
Bishop Whipple Face of the Episcopal Church of Minnesota
"Henry Benjamin Whipple became synonymous with Faribault Cathedral and the Diocese of Minnesota. He moved graciously among Indians and blacks and rural congregations, among sophisticated Easterners and tycoons in Minneapolis and St Paul, among bureaucrats and bishops, among professors at Oxford and Cambridge, even among Presidents and the dignitaries of Victoria's royal court." (from The First Cathedral by the Venerable Benjamin Scott and Robert Neslund)
Despite Bishop Whipple's fame his priority was being a family man. His relationship with his wife Cornelia and six children was kept at the forefront of his life. We forget that life in Faribault during that time was much different than our lives in 2020. There was a railroad, stage coach and Bashaw (the large black horse) that provided transportation for the bishop. There was no television, radio or computer technology to promote the Episcopal Church in Minnesota.
I often have been asked why there are so many pictures of Bishop Whipple. These were called cabinet cards, which were photos produced on a hard card stock. These cabinet cards were also used in the 19th century as the first baseball cards to promote products such as candy and tobacco. When Bishop Whipple would travel around the Diocese or country he passed out images of himself on these cabinet cards. Some people today thought that these images were connected with a large ego, but they were passed out among people to promote the Episcopal church as a tool of evangelism. The photos of Bishop Whipple in the 19th century were his business cards, because he was the face of the Episcopal Church in Minnesota.
September 29th, 2020
The Rev George Brayton Whipple (1830-1888)
Did you know that Bishop Whipple had a brother? Yes, he did! His name was George and he was younger by eight years. "In a letter, the Bishop described his brother as "a man of decidedly Evangelical views", "simple hearted and earnest", and "opposed to ritualism is all its forms"." (The First Cathedral a book by the Venerable Benjamin Ives Scott and Robert Neslund) George was an Episcopal priest who was ordained in 1862 and served on the Sandwich Islands for 3 years. He married Mary Mills (1829- 1911) and spent the majority of his ministry in Faribault MN. He was an instructor at Seabury Episcopal Seminary in Faribault and served doing priestly duties at the First Cathedral as well as being his brother's secretary. George and Mary had two daughters, Emma (1864-1878) and Eva (1866-1897). George was a very compassionate man, who was often described as having personal qualities which were Christ-like and his heart was always full of giving to those in need. George died at the young age of 58 in Nantucket while recovering from a spinal disease. There are many stories I have enjoyed reading about George. The story that is my favorite has to do with his conversion and it was shared by Bishop Whipple after George's death while laying the cornerstone of the George Brayton Whipple Memorial Guild House (yes, the very one standing today) .
"George had always loved the sea. In his youth he had read Dana's Two Years Before the Mast and longed to go whaling. After graduation from college he wanted "to see the world" and signed on.
After they had been out for two years, they one day struck an enormous whale; the creature no sooner felt the harpoon than it turned upon the boat and with a stroke of its tail threw the craft in the air; and as the whale dove, George Whipple was caught in a coil of rope, which would have cut him in two, had it not been for a broad belt of heavy leather which he wore. When the whale rose, George was in some way disentangled, and found himself near the overturned boat, on which he climbed in company with others; and that night, in the midst of the stormy sea, he gave his heart to Christ and His service." (The First Cathedral a book by the Venerable Benjamin Ives Scott and Robert Neslund).
September 22nd, 2020
"I have known Enmegahbowh in sunshine and in storms, and he has always been to me a faithful friend and brother. He has been my companion in my journeys in the wilderness, and while he is the most thoughtful in character, he possesses a vein of fun which, I suppose, he has more often revealed to his bishop than to any other." (from "Lights and Shadows of a Long Episcopate" by H B Whipple)
Enmegahbowh ("The One Who Stands Before His People'') is the first recognized Native American priest in the Episcopal church He was ordained deacon by Bishop Kemper in 1859 and priest by Bishop Whipple in the first cathedral in Faribault in 1867. Enmegahbowh's english name was John Johnson. He was an Ottowa Indian from Canada and was born in 1807. He invited James Lloyd Breck to Gull Lake in 1852 where they established the St Columba's Mission. The mission was later moved to White Earth, where Enmegahbowh served until his death in 1902. He is buried there.
In the choir area of the first cathedral, is a painting recognizing Enmegahbowh's ministry. The painting is an Icon-like portrait executed by the Rev Johnson Loud. Enmegahbowh's life is told in the book "A Great Cloud of Witnesses" and we remember him on June 12th.
"Grant that the ministers of your church, following the example of blessed Enmegahbow, may stand before your holy people leading them with fiery zeal and gentle humility." (from "A Great Cloud of Witnesses")
September 15th, 2020
The Whipple Children
Bishop Henry Whipple and his wife Cornelia were parents to six children. They were Sarah Elizabeth (Lizzy) (1843-1910), Cornelia Ward (1845-1884), Jane Whiting (Jennie) (1847-1932), Charles Henry (1849-1932), Francis Ranson (Fannie) (1853-1940) and John Hall (1857 - 1878).
Their daughter Cornelia married William Davis on his deathbed in 1866. In 1875 she married Dr Francis Rose of Faribault and died in childbirth. The Whipple's youngest son, John, wanted to leave home and find his own way. He was tragically murdered in Louisville, KY. Bishop Henry and Cornelia grieved at the death of these two children during their lifetime.
Bishop Whipple's dear wife Cornelia died in 1890 from injuries caused by a train wreck while traveling home from Florida. When Cornelia died, Bishop Whipple was in shock. His children spent much time with him and even traveled with him to Europe to give him a distraction from the death of Cornelia. They had been married 48 years.
Sarah, their eldest child, moved to Philadelphia and married Charles Farnam in 1864. They had one son Arthur who became an Episcopal priest. Jane married Henry Scandrett in 1872.They moved to Faribault where he was in real estate, insurance, and was a judge of probate for 2 terms. Their 2 sons became well-known railroad executives. Jane is buried at Maple Lawn Cemetery in Faribault, MN near her mother Cornelia. Charles became a Brigadier General and Paymaster General. He saw military action in Montana, the Philippines, Cuba and Puerto Rico. He settled in Los Angeles, CA. He married Evelyn McLean and they had 2 sons. Francis married Frank Craw in 1873 and Freedom Ware Jackson in 1891. One husband was a wealthy merchant from Cleveland and the other was an executive with Standard Oil. Francis was the last living Whipple child.
From reading about Cornelia and Henry it seems that they were good parents who let their children find their own destiny, but still loved them and cared for them dearly.
September 8th, 2020
"On October 5, 1842 Henry Whipple married Cornelia Wright, daughter of Benjamin Wright, a prominent local lawyer and surrogate judge. Cornelia Wright possessed a serene competence that endeared her to all whose lives she touched. Known as Nell to her friends and family, she was intelligent and practical, with a great amiability. These were admirable qualities for a merchant's wife: for a clergy man's wife, they would be invaluable." ("And the Wilderness Shall Blossom" by Anne Beiser Allen)
Nell was responsible for lighting a spark in Henry Whipple who was seeking a relationship with his saviour Jesus Christ. Cornelia was a remarkable woman and a perfect companion for Bishop Whipple in the journey of life during the 19th century.
Henry and Cornelia were parents to six children, four girls and two boys. The Whipples were solid in their relationship and were married 48 years. Cornelia died in 1890 as a result of a train accident injury which she received on her way home from Florida. Both Henry and Cornelia were fragile physically. Their physicians suggested they spend time in a warm climate to preserve their health. Despite their fragility, Henry managed a large geographical diocese, campaigns to the East for fundraising and advocating for the native population in Minnesota. Cornelia cared for her beloved children, created St Mary's girls school and supported her husband the bishop. Cornelia and Henry were truly a couple who gave their life in servanthood and lived in obedience to the wishes of Christ their Lord! The next story will be about the six Whipple children and their challenging lives.
August 25th, 2020
What Makes the Bishop Gilbert Hall in the Guild House of the First Cathedral so Spectacular?
I want to continue the story about the Bishop Gilbert Hall. It was an addition to the original Guild House structure. The hall was furnished with children in mind and focusing on their education using stories from the Bible and rich 19th century Christian Legends.
When I give tours of the Cathedral I usually end by entering Gilbert Hall. I love to see people's faces as they view very unusual images frozen from their creation in 1905. Here is a summary of images that can be viewed today in this spectacular room, which measures 20 by 40 feet:
1) A reproduction of Della Robia's reliefs of singing and dancing children. The reliefs are all white and larger than life size.
2) Other large white relief casts of Madonna, David holding the head of Goliath and St George and the dragon.
3) A mural on wood panels that surround the room represent the legend of the Quest of the Holy Grail. This mural was taken from Sir Edwin Abbey's frieze "The Quest and Achievement of the Holy Grail" found in the Boston Library.
Items that once resided in the room but are no longer there are:
1) A collection of shells, rocks and pictures of the Holy Land.
2) 50 little oak chairs for Sunday School students. There are one or two left.
3) A large sandbox used for telling bible stories.
People often ask me why these 1905 items are important. Remember in 1905, children depended on their teacher's ingenuity and their own imagination to learn the Bible stories and legends. Movie Theaters were just beginning to be built, telephones were new and not in very many homes, there were no computers, radios, television, or any other technology, but there was the purest form of communication - ART!
More about art in the First Cathedral to come!
August 18th, 2020
When I became Dean of the Cathedral in 2001, I was told I could have my office in the Guild House. I loved that idea because the Guild House seemed like a large comfortable home. The undercroft of this building had been the home of the Horstman Memorial Nursery School which had been in business since 1965. The school was closed down before I was hired as the Dean. The main level housed my office, the secretary's office, the Great Hall, the stage of the Great Hall and the kitchen and dining room. The upper level was a Sunday School room and Archive room. The stage of the Great Hall has a beautiful stained glass window of the resurrection. The window was a backdrop behind the old wooden altar. The altar was originally in the Cathedral apse before the stone altar took its place.
The Guild house (all but the kitchen and dining room) stood by itself for about 10 years and was finished in 1894 at the cost of $10,000 dollars. Ground was broken for the Gilbert Hall addition in 1903. The hall was a special room for children and housed a much needed kitchen. I will describe the special features of Gilbert Hall in future stories.
Most people don't know that Bishop Whipple had an assistant. The Rt. Rev. Mahlon Norris Gilbert was Assistant bishop from 1886 to 1900. He died in St Paul, a man loved by many and especially his family, who generated the money for the addition to the Guild House called Gilbert Hall.
August 11th, 2020
The Guild House of the First Cathedral
"Liturgy, in its literal sense, means "the work of the People." Normally the word is used only in connection with public worship - and this may indeed be the highest form of human worship, yet the work of the people of God includes more than prayer and praise and preaching. The Guild House, like parish houses in general, grew out of at least two developments in the late 19th century; a larger awareness of the social implications of religion and the increasing role of the laity. Neither was an altogether new idea. In the late 1880's "organized work" burgeoned in the Parish requiring space and facilities for a variety of groups. Women took the lead in most of these activities." ( "The First Cathedral" book by the Venerable Ben Scott and Robert Neslund - 1987)
The Guild House on the grounds of the Cathedral city block opened in 1894. The Cathedral shared the block with the Guild House but there was a large separation between the two buildings. I believe in the 19th century this separation existed for a purpose. The Cathedral was a Gothic structure, which reflected prestige and grandeur. The Guild House was a Romanesque style of architecture reflecting the "arts and crafts" type houses built in America during this time period. The Cathedral building was used for worship and liturgy. On Sundays the "People from the hill" congregated in the nave to gather and celebrate with the beautiful music created by the grand organ. Faculty from Shattuck MilitarySchool, St Mary's Girls School, St James School for middle school boys, Seabury Divinity School students and staff formed along with the common people, the congregants of the Cathedral. The common people centered their ministry at the Guild House. Many fun and festive community events happened at the Guild House. The Great Hall was at one time the largest public space for events in Faribault.
The Guild House and the Cathedral lived out changes and evolutions of church life in the city of Faribault, MN, which was once called" "The Athens of the West". More to come on the buildings that housed the people of God in Southern Minnesota.
August 4th, 2020
The Mystery of the Cornerstone
"On July 16, 1862, I laid the corner-stone of the Bishop's Church in Faribault. At the suggestion of my beloved brother, the Rt Rev A.C. Coxe, I named it "The Cathedral Church of Our Merciful Saviour." It was my hope that we might build up schools around the Cathedral, making it a common centre.I felt our first building should be a House of Prayer in honor of the Triune God." (From "Lights and Shadows of a Long Episcopate" by Rt Rev Henry B Whipple)
The cornerstone's location is a mystery. if you visit the First Cathedral the cornerstone is not visible. No one knows where it is. One of the theories of its disappearance is that it was covered up by the addition built on the Cathedral in the 1930's. The addition was important because it was a remodeling of the crypt which housed Bishop Whipple's sarcophagus. Also in the addition was the St Elizabeth Chapel, which was once in Bishop Whipple's house across the street from the Cathedral. The house was torn down about the same time as the construction of the addition.
Other additions to the original Cathedral were the following. 1) The memorial bell tower added to the north side of the Cathedral promoted and built by Evangeline Whipple in the early 1900s before she left for Europe. 2) In 2005, the Cathedral Cloister was added to connect the Romanesque Guild House built in 1884 to the Cathedral building.The cloister is a combination of Gothic and Romanesque architecture, which creates a beautiful open room with large windows and is very inviting to host gatherings for about 75 people.
In future stories of the First Cathedral, I will describe the history and functions of the bell towers, the St Elizabeth Chapel, the Cloister and the Guild House.
July 28th, 2020
Early Years of Bishop Whipple's Ministry in Faribault
"The Bishop's first service in Faribault, MN was on February 19, 1860 in the "rude chapel" of the Parish of the Good Shepherd. During the visit a committee of 40 citizens met with him to make Faribault his home. They pledged $1,168 and several lots of land as a site. Alexander Faribault, a Roman Catholic part-Indian offered 5 additional acres. Early in May of 1860, the Whipples established their household in Faribault." (Information taken from "The First Cathedral" book written by Robert Neslund and the Venerable Benjamin Ives Scott.)
After one year and a year away from laying the cornerstone of the First Cathedral, the Bishop set out across the large geographical area of Minnesota! Whipple reported that his missionary stations had doubled in one year. Also in one year he traveled over 3,000 miles holding services in taverns, school houses and outside areas. He did the basics of preaching, baptizing, confirming and celebrating the Eucharist.
As the Bishop, with his trusty companion Bashaw (the large black horse), traveled around MInnesota, he sensed the underlying conflicts between native people and white settlers. The Dakota and Anishinaabe where living with broken promises from treaties, which had promised retribution for lands vacated by the native people. The year 1860 was only 2 years from the Dakota conflict when blood was spilled by both native and white lives in Southwestern Minnesota. The war began in August of 1862 at the same time that construction started on the First Cathedral in Faribault.
In future stories, I will share Bishop Whipple's role in the conflict and how he earned his name from the native people, who called him "Straight Tongue".
July 21, 2020
Church of the Good Shepherd
As I promised, I will end the Bashaw story from Bishop Whipple's words found in his autobiography: "Lights and Shadows of a Long Episcopate."
"Bashaw was one cousin to the celebrated Patchin. He was a kingly fellow and had every sign of noble birth, --a slim, delicate head, prominent eyes, small, active ears, large nostrils, full chest, thin gambrels, heavy cords, neat fetlocks, and was black as a coal. He was my friend and companion for over fifty thousand miles, always full of spirit and gentle as a girl. The only time I ever touched him with a whip was on the brink of a precipice where the path was a sheet of glare ice and as the wagon began to slide I saved us both by a lash, but the blow hurt me more than it did Bashaw. He saved my life when lost on the prairies many times. In summer heat and winter storm he kept every appointment often by heroic effort."
When Bishop Whipple was making his trips around the state, there was a church building that served Faribault, MN called the Church of the Good Shepherd. The church was built and raised up by pre-Whipple clergy such as James Lloyd Breck, Timothy Wilcoxen, Solon Manney, David Sanford and George Dubois. The Church of the Good Shepherd was a 21 by 50 ft building, constructed a few blocks West of the First Cathedral (A picture of the structure is in "The First Cathedral " book page 22 and was written by the Venerable Benjamin Scott and Mr Robert Neslund.) As Bishop Whipple cared for his flock with the help of Bashaw, people worshipped at the Church of the Good Shepherd while the First Cathedral was being built from 1862-1869. When I was Dean of the First Cathedral we always started our Annual Meeting by opening with the Church of the Good Shepherd, closing that meeting and then beginning the meeting for the First Cathedral!
July 14, 2020
A Bashaw Story
Last time I ended with the promise to share a story about Bishop Whipple's famous horse Bashaw. This story is told by Bishop Whipple in his autobiography "Lights and Shadows of a Long Episcopate" 1899.
"A starless night came on and with the howling wind sweeping the snow first into almost impassable drifts and then leveling them to the bare ground, I had to confess myself lost.
Until one has encountered a western blizzard the word has little meaning. The Indians have always paid me their highest compliment when they have declared that I could follow a trail and find the points of the compass as well as any Indian.
I now kept my horses headed in the direction which I thought to be that of the Agency. I said my prayers, threw the reins over the dash-board, let the horses walk as they would, and curling myself up under the buffaloes, hoped I might weather the night.
Suddenly Bahsaw stopped. I was confident that the wise fellow had struck a landmark, for he knew as well as I did that we were lost. I jumped from the sleigh and could just distinguish in the darkness something under the snow that looked like a huge snake. It proved to be an Indian trail. The Indians always walked single file to avoid an ambush, and in the loam of the prairie these trails are several inches deep. Bashaw followed it, and when his mate was inclined to turn out he put his teeth into his neck and forced him into the path.
Mr Hinman was so sure that I had started that he had kept a light in the window of the Agency, and when Bashaw saw it he leaped like a hound from his kennel. When we reached the mission and Bashaw, comfortably stalled, turned his great eyes upon me, his whinny said as plainly as words,"We are all right now, master.""
This is my favorite Bahaw story because it shows Bishop Whipple's relationship with his beloved horse, companion and friend. More on Bashaw next week.
July 7, 2020
Special Gift for Bishop Whipple
Two years before the construction of the First Cathedral in 1860, Bishop Whipple received a very special gift from his father-in-law, Mr Wright of Waterloo, NY. The gift was a beautiful black horse, who was 8 years old and named Bashaw. Bashaw was a second cousin of the celebrated horse George M Patchen (Dan Patch). Bashaw was widely known throughout the state of MN having carried Bishop Whipple over 50,000 miles over prairies and wilderness in the course of his pastoral calls. Bishop Whipple would take a carriage pulled by two horses. Bashaw had 6 partners in the course of his career for the Bishop. The carriage used by Bishop Whipple is a treasure of Blue Earth County Museum in Mankato, MN. Bashaw loved Bishop Whipple and Bishop Whipple loved Bashaw. Basha';s sensitivity, intellect and faithfullness were qualities which saved the Bishop's life several times. Next week I will tell such a story from Bishop Whipple's autobiography called "The Lights and Shadows of a Long Episcopate".
June 30, 2020
Whose idea was it to build the Cathedral of Our Merciful Saviour? Let's turn to the book the "First Cathedral", which I mentioned in my article last week, for the answer to this question.
"On April 18, 1862, Mrs Breck died. Though Whipple does not explain exactly why, this was the specific occasion for his decision to build the Cathedral. In his funeral sermon for Mrs. Breck, he refers to this idea and quotes the verse, "Work while the day lasts, for the night cometh in which no man can work." Both the funeral sermon and his address at the laying of the cornerstone would be printed and circulated widely. On Easter Day, the congregation of the Good Shepherd contributed over $600 to the cause, and eventually Dr Breck would raise over $11,000 for the building fund. As the Bishop said, "It was while my heart was sad for my brother's [Breck's] loss...that the thought came to build the [Cathedral] even in troublesome times. I believe God put that thought there...and it grew to be a plan..."
July 16, 1862, must have been a poignant day for Dr Breck. Bishop Whipple laid the cornerstone of the Bishop's Church, but as he himself said, "This world did not take much notice." Even the Central Republican thought it was nothing more than the Coxe of Western New York -- "The Cathedral of Our Merciful Saviour." The building was designed in a rather plain Gothic style, apparently by Renwick & Co. of New York City. Stephen Congdon was the chief supervising architect, and Robert C Wiley of St Paul was the local supervising architect. C.N. Daniels of Faribault was the supervisor of the exterior stone work. The stone for the Cathedral was native blue limestone from Milan Ponds' Fall Creek quarry east of Faribault. Edward Goodman, the chief stonecutter, had recently come to Faribault from Yarmouth, England."
We need to give credit to the strong and faithful women, who gave leadership and support to their husbands in the early history of the Episcopal Church of Minnesota. Marie Breck and Cornelia Whipple were the wives that sparked the evangelical zeal in their husbands! If Marie Breck had lived longer she most likely would have done many important tasks to help her husband James Lloyd Beck. Cornelia Whipple was probably responsible for Henry B whipple coming to Christianity and pushed him to study for the priesthood. Cornelia died in 1890. Before her death she created St Mary's School for young women and many more monumental ministries in Faribault, MN. St Mary's is still in operation on the Shattuck-St Mary's campus. One can take a tour of the Maple Lawn Cemetery in Faribault, MN and view Cornelia's grave which reads: "She did what she could."
Cornelia did what she could and made many more contributions to the beginning of the Episcopal Church in Minnesota. Dr Breck and Bishop Whipple were very blessed to have wives who were true saints!
June 20, 2020
Starting next week, I will be submitting a weekly story about the Cathedral of Our Merciful Saviour for the ECMN news. I have gotten permission from the ECMN office and the Chapter of the Cathedral to share these weekly stories about the place, the people and the events from the past and present. The Cathedral is truly a treasure of the ECMN.
Let me take a minute to introduce myself to those who don't know me. I am the priest-in-charge at St Peter's Episcopal Church in Kasson. I am also the archivist at the Cathedral of Our Merciful Saviour where I was the Dean from 2001 - 2013. My ordination to the priesthood by Bishop Anderson took place at this cathedral in 1988. The Cathedral is a significant place for me because my children were married there, my grandchildren were baptised there and my wife Paula's funeral was held there in 2012.
And now a little background on the Cathedral of Our Merciful Saviour. It was our First Bishop Henry B Whipple who had the idea to start the building of the Cathedral in 1862 and it was finished in 1869. This is the first church built as a Cathedral of any denomination in the United States. A book titled "The First Cathedral" was written in 1987 and revised in 2003 by the Venerable Ben Scott and Robert Neslund. A copy of the revision was sent to every faith community in Minnesota. Check your library for a copy of " The First Cathedral".
I believe it is time to share stories and history about this treasure called The Cathedral of Our Merciful Saviour as we begin a new Episcopate with Bishop Craig Loya. Hopefully you will find my weekly stories enjoyable and informative.